Wednesday, January 20, 2010

How to Eliminate Human Trafficking

Trafficking is one of the most issues that must be thinking it deep by international. Trafficking as a international serious crime, the practice of trafficking, nowaday, is getting bigger, so it needs to be overcome by international cooperation. Trafficking occurred not only in prosperous country but also in developing country. Take a number of trafficking cases in Europe, United States of America, and other prosperous country are going to expand. But most victims come from developing countries because developing countries, in general, are not as prosperous as modern countries.

In 2000 United Nations have tried to eliminate trafficking by enacting United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime as a Resolution adopted by the General Assembly. The purpose of this convention is to promote cooperation to prevent and combat transnational organized crime more effectively. By these convention trafficking involved Transnational Organized Crime, because the practice occurred cross national border. Most of the trafficking victims are women and children.

United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime has supplement such Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women And Children, Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, and Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, Protocol To Prevent, Suppress And Punish Trafficking In Persons used for preventing and combatting trafficking in person, especially women and children, protecting and assisting the victims of such trafficking, with full respect for their human rights; and promoting cooperation among States Parties in order to meet those objectives.

Based on Protocol to Prevent, Suppress And Punish Trafficking In Persons, Especially Women And Children, trafficking mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of thegiving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of aperson having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs;

Elements of human trafficking
On the basis of the definition given in the Trafficking in Persons Protocol, it is evident that trafficking in persons has three constituent elements (The United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime) (
The Act (What is done)
Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons.
The Means (How it is done)
Threat or use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or vulnerability, or giving payments or benefits to a person in control of the victim
The Purpose (Why it is done)
For the purpose of exploitation, which includes exploiting the prostitution of others, sexual exploitation, forced labour, slavery or similar practices and the removal of organs.
The practice of trafficking is usually by deception to victim that victim will get well-paid job such as servant in other country, employee in foreign company, or interested program such art and cultural ambassador, young and students exchange and etc. The recruitment may be done by unknown people who offer job or program to the victim, but it is a guise merely, the main goal is to exploit the victim such as sexual exploitation, slavery, or removal of organs. Recruitment process is not only from unknown people but also from well-known people such as important figure at their society or religion.

There are several factors that trigger human trafficking (Indonesian guidance book of eliminating trafficking) :
1. Poverty
People who life with poverty feel hard, so they would like increase their financial, but, usually occurred, they was cheated by trafficker who offered job, but it was only a guise merely.
2. Less of respect towards women
Dealing with the some culture that women is not more respecful than male
3. Child supposed to slave
4. Low education and competence
low education strongly caused competence, both of these are mainly caused by poverty, or the culture view that high education is not too important. By less of education someone do not have chance to choose their self determination dealing with kind of occupation, it cause they will receive whatever job without thinking it deep. And hard in getting report about human trafficking as example
5. Consumtif character
Consumtif character will spend their financial fast, if without much money, so the condition triggers poverty.
6. disharmonism family
Children grown up in broken home, may be less of their parents attention, tend to be easy to get effection by trafficker. It is caused by situation that children could not feel happy.
7. Too early marriage
Too early marriage, in many cases, finally got divorce, it is happened to them because they was still labil in managing family.
8. Less of careness by neigbouring society
It is caused the neighbouring society do not have information about trafficking, and suppose that people offered new job by unknown man is ordinary, eventhough they do not what kind of job that the victim run, and what condition the victim is.
9. The character of officer
The officer play important toward the existing trafficking practise, if they do not take in mind or do not care about trafficking cases, there are no regretful towards trafficker who have done it, the case will be repeated again.

There are many factors that support trafficking, the trigering factor are complexity, so it need hard struggle in eliminating trafficking especially women and child trafficking. One thing that support women and child traffiking is poverty, so government should decrease the number of poor society by running their policy, take an example, by creating new field of job. Giving enough education tend to give enough competence to someone, so someone could not easy to be a victim in trafficking. Government should always socialize about danger of tarfficking, socializing can be run by showing in television, radio, newspapers or face directly to society who live in remote village. Socialization must be continouese until all of society know about trafficking. The regulation that rule trafficking must be run well, and should have strict punishment, and law eforcement officer should run the state policy as maximal as they can.


My Discussion on International Relations said...